In cnc wheel lathe machine processing, especially for just contact or beginners, abnormal situations often occur. When these sudden abnormal conditions occur, the light damages the tool, the workpiece is scrapped, and the chuck and electric tool holder of the lathe are seriously damaged. Affect the accuracy of the machine tool and even hurt the personal safety of the operator.
The following is an analysis of the problems in the operation, the causes, prevention, and solutions. Please refer to the NC readers for future operations.
First, the reason in programming
1. The route of the knife: The so-called route is to determine the processing route according to the requirements of drawings and process orders. To ensure the accuracy of the size and position of the parts, select the appropriate processing sequence and clamping method. In the process of its determination, it is necessary to pay attention to the general principles of first coarse and fine, first near and far, and internal diplomacy. The margin of the workpiece should be taken into account in programming to avoid accidents.
2. The workpiece needs to be machined in the groove. When programming, it should be noted that the advance and retraction point should be perpendicular to the groove direction. The feed speed cannot be fast forwarded with “G0” speed to avoid collision between the tool and the workpiece.
3. The starting point of the tool should be the same when the ordinary thread is machined. The coordinates of the starting point of the “X” axis should be the same, avoiding the occurrence of chaotic and taper threads.
4. Pay attention to the selection of the advance and retreat points. The infeed cannot hit the workpiece, and the retraction should leave the workpiece first. G0 command should avoid “X, Z” moving at the same time when moving in and out, such as: G0 X100 Z100; should be changed to: G0 X100; Z100; two sentences are completed.
5. If the F value is too large in the G01 command, there may be two situations. One is that the lathe does not move, the servo system alarms, and the other is that the tool moves at a very fast speed (greater than G0) and a crash occurs. The reason is that the program starts to feed according to each revolution and the following program feeds in every minute. The occurrence of “F00, F200” is generated, and the above accident will occur once the program is executed.
6. When changing the tool during programming, pay attention to the space of the tool, especially the boring tool. It is necessary to determine the tool change point on the lathe. Special attention should be paid to the need for top support when the workpiece is long.
Second, cnc wheel lathe machine CNC system itself
Due to various operations during processing, such as inputting a tool offset, inserting a program, and performing delete operations after execution, the execution of the program in the random memory PMA chip is confusing, an error occurs in the system execution, and the X or Z direction is lost, resulting in Crash.
The components in the EPROM chip, system board or driver board are damaged, causing an error in the execution program. In order to avoid this situation, it is necessary to check the lathe system frequently and find an abnormality to find a professional in time.
Third, misuse
The operator is unfamiliar with the specific meaning of the keyboard function keys, the operation is not skilled, and the lathe function parameters are modified incorrectly, which may cause accidents such as crashes.
1. When inputting the tool compensation value, sometimes the “+” sign is changed to the “-” sign, and the “2.25” is input to the “225”. It is often the case that the tool directly rushes toward the workpiece and the chuck after the lathe is started, causing the workpiece to be scrapped. Damage, lathe chuck crash and other accidents.
2. When returning to zero or returning to the reference point, the sequence should be the X-axis and Z-axis direction. If the order is not correct, the small lathe will collide with the lathe tailstock.
Note: Beginners should try not to modify the machine function parameters before fully understanding the lathe function. Be sure to understand the basic principles. The operation should be carried out in strict accordance with the operating procedures. After entering the program or the tool compensation value, it should be checked repeatedly before operation.
Fourth, cnc wheel lathe itself mechanical failure
The stepping motor has a mechanical failure, or because the wiring under the stepping motor is broken during operation, the connecting pin between the stepping motor and the ball screw is detached, so that the movement between the motor and the carriage is not synchronized, or in the lead screw There are foreign objects (such as chips), which cause one of the two axes of the machine to move or move slowly, causing a collision accident on the lathe.
When operating, you should pay attention to its color, listen to its sound, find abnormal handling in time, the lathe guide rail and screw should be cleaned up after use.

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